The HostPath can be used to provision local storage in a single node test. This section shows how to deploy and use that driver in Kubernetes.

The deployment of a CSI driver determines which RBAC rules are needed. For example, enabling or disabling leadership election changes which permissions the external-attacher and external-provisioner need. This example deployment uses the original RBAC rule files that are maintained together with those sidecar apps and deploys into the default namespace.

A real production should copy the RBAC files and customize them as explained in the comments of those files.


This was initially tested with Kubernetes v1.12 and should still work there. It was also tested with a 1.13 pre-release snapshot. To ensure that all necessary features are enabled, set the following feature gate flags to true:


CSIPersistentVolume is enabled by default in v1.10. MountPropagation is enabled by default in v1.10. VolumeSnapshotDataSource is a new alpha feature in v1.12. KubeletPluginsWatcher is enabled by default in v1.12. CSINodeInfo and CSIDriverRegistry are new alpha features in v1.12.

CRDs need to be created manually for CSIDriverRegistry and CSINodeInfo:

$ kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/csi-api/ab0df28581235f5350f27ce9c27485850a3b2802/pkg/crd/testdata/csidriver.yaml --validate=false customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/csidrivers.csi.storage.k8s.io created

$ kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/csi-api/ab0df28581235f5350f27ce9c27485850a3b2802/pkg/crd/testdata/csinodeinfo.yaml --validate=false customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/csinodeinfos.csi.storage.k8s.io created

Create RBAC rules for CSI provisioner

$ kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes-csi/external-provisioner/1cd1c20a6d4b2fcd25c98a008385b436d61d46a4/deploy/kubernetes/rbac.yaml

clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/external-provisioner-runner created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/csi-provisioner-role created
role.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/external-provisioner-cfg created
rolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/csi-provisioner-role-cfg created

Create RBAC rules for CSI attacher

$ kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes-csi/external-attacher/9da8c6d20d58750ee33d61d0faf0946641f50770/deploy/kubernetes/rbac.yaml

serviceaccount/csi-attacher created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/external-attacher-runner created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/csi-attacher-role created
role.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/external-attacher-cfg created
rolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/csi-attacher-role-cfg created

Create RBAC rules for node plugin

Only the driver-registrar interacts directly with Kubernetes, so it's those RBAC rules that are needed:

$ kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes-csi/driver-registrar/87d0059110a8b4a90a6d2b5a8702dd7f3f270b80/deploy/kubernetes/rbac.yaml

serviceaccount/csi-driver-registrar created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/driver-registrar-runner created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/csi-driver-registrar-role created

Create RBAC rules for CSI snapshotter

The CSI snapshotter is an optional sidecar container. You only need to create these RBAC rules if you want to test the snapshot feature.

$ kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes-csi/external-snapshotter/01bd7f356e6718dee87914232d287631655bef1d/deploy/kubernetes/rbac.yaml

serviceaccount/csi-snapshotter created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/external-snapshotter-runner created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/csi-snapshotter-role created

Deploy driver-registrar and hostpath CSI plugin in DaemonSet pod

The CSI sidecar apps are going to connect to the CSI driver, therefore starting it first helps avoid timeouts and intermittent container restarts:

$ kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/f40a5d1155aae95105a4e9bb8933d750c666e350/test/e2e/testing-manifests/storage-csi/hostpath/hostpath/csi-hostpathplugin.yaml daemonset.apps/csi-hostpathplugin created

$ kubectl get pod

NAME                       READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
csi-hostpathplugin-4k7hk   2/2     Running   0          22s

Deploy CSI provisioner in StatefulSet pod

$ kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/f40a5d1155aae95105a4e9bb8933d750c666e350/test/e2e/testing-manifests/storage-csi/hostpath/hostpath/csi-hostpath-provisioner.yaml

service/csi-hostpath-provisioner created
statefulset.apps/csi-hostpath-provisioner created

$ kubectl get pod

NAME                         READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
csi-hostpath-provisioner-0   1/1     Running   0          14s
csi-hostpathplugin-4k7hk     2/2     Running   0          75s

Deploy CSI attacher in StatefulSet pod

$ kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/f40a5d1155aae95105a4e9bb8933d750c666e350/test/e2e/testing-manifests/storage-csi/hostpath/hostpath/csi-hostpath-attacher.yaml

service/csi-hostpath-attacher created
statefulset.apps/csi-hostpath-attacher created

$ kubectl get pod

NAME                         READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
csi-hostpath-attacher-0      1/1     Running   0          14s
csi-hostpath-provisioner-0   1/1     Running   0          56s
csi-hostpathplugin-4k7hk     2/2     Running   0          117s

Deploy livenessprobe with CSI plugin

The CSI community provides a livenessprobe side-container that can be integrated with the CSI driver services (Node and Controller) to provide the liveness of the CSI service containers.

The livenessprobe side-container will expose the an http endpoint that will be used in a kubernetes liveness probe.

Below is an example configuration which needs to be added to CSI driver services (Node and Controller) yamls:

Note: This example is derived from using-livenessprobe from kubernetes-csi/livenessprobe

- name: hostpath-driver
    image: quay.io/k8scsi/hostpathplugin:vx.x.x
    imagePullPolicy: Always
      privileged: true
# Defining port which will be used to GET plugin health status
# 9808 is default, but can be changed.
    - containerPort: 9808
      name: healthz
      protocol: TCP
      failureThreshold: 5
        path: /healthz
        port: healthz
      initialDelaySeconds: 10
      timeoutSeconds: 3
      periodSeconds: 2
      failureThreshold: 1
# Spec for liveness probe sidecar container
 - name: liveness-probe
    imagePullPolicy: Always
    - mountPath: /csi
      name: socket-dir
    image: quay.io/k8scsi/livenessprobe:v0.4.1
    - --csi-address=/csi/csi.sock
    - --connection-timeout=3s
    - --health-port=9898


  • --csi-address - specifies the Unix domain socket path, as seen in the container, for the CSI driver. It allows the livenessprobe sidecar to communicate with the driver for driver liveness information. Mount path /csi is mapped to HostPath entry socket-dir which is mapped to directory /var/lib/kubelet/plugins/csi-hostpath

  • --connection-timeout - specifies the timeout duration of waiting for CSI driver socket in seconds. (default 30s)

  • --health-port - specifies the TCP ports for listening healthz requests (default "9808")

Deploy CSI snapshotter in StatefulSet pod

The CSI snapshotter is an optional sidecar container. You only need to deploy it if you want to test the snapshot feature.

$ kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes-csi/docs/387dce893e59c1fcf3f4192cbea254440b6f0f07/book/src/example/snapshot/csi-hostpath-snapshotter.yaml

service/csi-hostpath-snapshotter created
statefulset.apps/csi-hostpath-snapshotter created

$ kubectl get pod

NAME                         READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
csi-hostpath-attacher-0      1/1     Running   0          58s
csi-hostpath-provisioner-0   1/1     Running   0          100s
csi-hostpath-snapshotter-0   1/1     Running   0          12s
csi-hostpathplugin-4k7hk     2/2     Running   0          2m41s


Dynamic provisioning is enabled by creating a csi-hostpath-sc storage class.

$ kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes-csi/docs/387dce893e59c1fcf3f4192cbea254440b6f0f07/book/src/example/usage/csi-storageclass.yaml storageclass.storage.k8s.io/csi-hostpath-sc created

We can use this storage class to create and claim a new volume:

$ kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes-csi/docs/387dce893e59c1fcf3f4192cbea254440b6f0f07/book/src/example/usage/csi-pvc.yaml persistentvolumeclaim/csi-pvc created

$ kubectl get pvc

NAME      STATUS   VOLUME                                     CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   STORAGECLASS      AGE
csi-pvc   Bound    pvc-0571cc14-c714-11e8-8911-000c2967769a   1Gi        RWO            csi-hostpath-sc   3s

$ kubectl get pv

NAME                                       CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   RECLAIM POLICY   STATUS   CLAIM             STORAGECLASS      REASON   AGE
pvc-0571cc14-c714-11e8-8911-000c2967769a   1Gi        RWO            Delete           Bound    default/csi-pvc   csi-hostpath-sc            3s

The HostPath driver is configured to create new volumes under /tmp inside the hostpath container in the CSI hostpath plugin DaemonSet pod and thus persist as long as the DaemonSet pod itself. We can use such volumes in another pod like this:

$ kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes-csi/docs/387dce893e59c1fcf3f4192cbea254440b6f0f07/book/src/example/usage/csi-app.yaml pod/my-csi-app created

$ kubectl get pods

NAME                         READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
csi-hostpath-attacher-0      1/1     Running   0          117s
csi-hostpath-provisioner-0   1/1     Running   0          2m39s
csi-hostpath-snapshotter-0   1/1     Running   0          71s
csi-hostpathplugin-4k7hk     2/2     Running   0          3m40s
my-csi-app                   1/1     Running   0          14s

$ kubectl describe pods/my-csi-app

Name:               my-csi-app
Namespace:          default
Priority:           0
PriorityClassName:  <none>
Start Time:         Wed, 03 Oct 2018 06:59:19 -0700
Labels:             <none>
Annotations:        <none>
Status:             Running
    Container ID:  docker://fd2950af39a155bdf08d1da341cfb23aa0d1af3eaaad6950a946355789606e8c
    Image:         busybox
    Image ID:      docker-pullable://busybox@sha256:2a03a6059f21e150ae84b0973863609494aad70f0a80eaeb64bddd8d92465812
    Port:          <none>
    Host Port:     <none>
    State:          Running
      Started:      Wed, 03 Oct 2018 06:59:22 -0700
    Ready:          True
    Restart Count:  0
    Environment:    <none>
      /data from my-csi-volume (rw)
      /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount from default-token-xms2g (ro)
  Type              Status
  Initialized       True
  Ready             True
  ContainersReady   True
  PodScheduled      True
    Type:       PersistentVolumeClaim (a reference to a PersistentVolumeClaim in the same namespace)
    ClaimName:  csi-pvc
    ReadOnly:   false
    Type:        Secret (a volume populated by a Secret)
    SecretName:  default-token-xms2g
    Optional:    false
QoS Class:       BestEffort
Node-Selectors:  <none>
Tolerations:     node.kubernetes.io/not-ready:NoExecute for 300s
                 node.kubernetes.io/unreachable:NoExecute for 300s
  Type    Reason                  Age   From                     Message
  ----    ------                  ----  ----                     -------
  Normal  Scheduled               69s   default-scheduler        Successfully assigned default/my-csi-app to
  Normal  SuccessfulAttachVolume  69s   attachdetach-controller  AttachVolume.Attach succeeded for volume "pvc-0571cc14-c714-11e8-8911-000c2967769a"
  Normal  Pulling                 67s   kubelet,       pulling image "busybox"
  Normal  Pulled                  67s   kubelet,       Successfully pulled image "busybox"
  Normal  Created                 67s   kubelet,       Created container
  Normal  Started                 66s   kubelet,       Started container

Confirming the setup

Writing inside the app container should be visible in /tmp of the hostpath container:

$ kubectl exec -it my-csi-app /bin/sh
/ # touch /data/hello-world
/ # exit

$ kubectl exec -it $(kubectl get pods --selector app=csi-hostpathplugin -o jsonpath='{.items[*].metadata.name}') -c hostpath /bin/sh
/ # find / -name hello-world
/ # exit

There should be a VolumeAttachment while the app has the volume mounted:

$ kubectl get VolumeAttachment

Name:         csi-a4e97f3af2161c6d081b8e96c58ed00c9bf1e1745e89b2545e24505437f015df
Labels:       <none>
Annotations:  <none>
API Version:  storage.k8s.io/v1beta1
Kind:         VolumeAttachment
  Creation Timestamp:  2018-10-03T13:59:19Z
  Resource Version:    1730
  Self Link:           /apis/storage.k8s.io/v1beta1/volumeattachments/csi-a4e97f3af2161c6d081b8e96c58ed00c9bf1e1745e89b2545e24505437f015df
  UID:                 862d7241-c714-11e8-8911-000c2967769a
  Attacher:   csi-hostpath
  Node Name:
    Persistent Volume Name:  pvc-0571cc14-c714-11e8-8911-000c2967769a
  Attached:  true
Events:      <none>

Snapshot support

Enable dynamic provisioning of volume snapshot by creating a volume snapshot class as follows:

$ kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes-csi/docs/387dce893e59c1fcf3f4192cbea254440b6f0f07/book/src/example/snapshot/csi-snapshotclass.yaml volumesnapshotclass.snapshot.storage.k8s.io/csi-hostpath-snapclass created

$ kubectl get volumesnapshotclass

NAME                     AGE
csi-hostpath-snapclass   11s

$ kubectl describe volumesnapshotclass

Name:         csi-hostpath-snapclass
Labels:       <none>
Annotations:  <none>
API Version:  snapshot.storage.k8s.io/v1alpha1
Kind:         VolumeSnapshotClass
  Creation Timestamp:  2018-10-03T14:15:30Z
  Generation:          1
  Resource Version:    2418
  Self Link:           /apis/snapshot.storage.k8s.io/v1alpha1/volumesnapshotclasses/csi-hostpath-snapclass
  UID:                 c8f5bc47-c716-11e8-8911-000c2967769a
Snapshotter:           csi-hostpath
Events:                <none>

Use the volume snapshot class to dynamically create a volume snapshot:

$ kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes-csi/docs/387dce893e59c1fcf3f4192cbea254440b6f0f07/book/src/example/snapshot/csi-snapshot.yaml volumesnapshot.snapshot.storage.k8s.io/new-snapshot-demo created

$ kubectl get volumesnapshot

NAME                AGE
new-snapshot-demo   12s

$ kubectl get volumesnapshotcontent

NAME                                               AGE
snapcontent-f55db632-c716-11e8-8911-000c2967769a   14s

$ kubectl describe volumesnapshot

Name:         new-snapshot-demo
Namespace:    default
Labels:       <none>
Annotations:  <none>
API Version:  snapshot.storage.k8s.io/v1alpha1
Kind:         VolumeSnapshot
  Creation Timestamp:  2018-10-03T14:16:45Z
  Generation:          1
  Resource Version:    2476
  Self Link:           /apis/snapshot.storage.k8s.io/v1alpha1/namespaces/default/volumesnapshots/new-snapshot-demo
  UID:                 f55db632-c716-11e8-8911-000c2967769a
  Snapshot Class Name:    csi-hostpath-snapclass
  Snapshot Content Name:  snapcontent-f55db632-c716-11e8-8911-000c2967769a
    Kind:  PersistentVolumeClaim
    Name:  csi-pvc
  Creation Time:  2018-10-03T14:16:45Z
  Ready:          true
  Restore Size:   1Gi
Events:           <none>

$ kubectl describe volumesnapshotcontent

Name:         snapcontent-f55db632-c716-11e8-8911-000c2967769a
Labels:       <none>
Annotations:  <none>
API Version:  snapshot.storage.k8s.io/v1alpha1
Kind:         VolumeSnapshotContent
  Creation Timestamp:  2018-10-03T14:16:45Z
  Generation:          1
  Resource Version:    2474
  Self Link:           /apis/snapshot.storage.k8s.io/v1alpha1/volumesnapshotcontents/snapcontent-f55db632-c716-11e8-8911-000c2967769a
  UID:                 f561411f-c716-11e8-8911-000c2967769a
  Csi Volume Snapshot Source:
    Creation Time:    1538576205471577525
    Driver:           csi-hostpath
    Restore Size:     1073741824
    Snapshot Handle:  f55ff979-c716-11e8-bb16-000c2967769a
  Persistent Volume Ref:
    API Version:        v1
    Kind:               PersistentVolume
    Name:               pvc-0571cc14-c714-11e8-8911-000c2967769a
    Resource Version:   1573
    UID:                0575b966-c714-11e8-8911-000c2967769a
  Snapshot Class Name:  csi-hostpath-snapclass
  Volume Snapshot Ref:
    API Version:       snapshot.storage.k8s.io/v1alpha1
    Kind:              VolumeSnapshot
    Name:              new-snapshot-demo
    Namespace:         default
    Resource Version:  2472
    UID:               f55db632-c716-11e8-8911-000c2967769a
Events:                <none>

Restore volume from snapshot support

Follow the following example to create a volume from a volume snapshot:

$ kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes-csi/docs/387dce893e59c1fcf3f4192cbea254440b6f0f07/book/src/example/snapshot/csi-restore.yaml persistentvolumeclaim/hpvc-restore created

$ kubectl get pvc

NAME           STATUS   VOLUME                                     CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   STORAGECLASS      AGE
csi-pvc        Bound    pvc-0571cc14-c714-11e8-8911-000c2967769a   1Gi        RWO            csi-hostpath-sc   24m
hpvc-restore   Bound    pvc-77324684-c717-11e8-8911-000c2967769a   1Gi        RWO            csi-hostpath-sc   6s

$ kubectl get pv

NAME                                       CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   RECLAIM POLICY   STATUS   CLAIM                  STORAGECLASS      REASON   AGE
pvc-0571cc14-c714-11e8-8911-000c2967769a   1Gi        RWO            Delete           Bound    default/csi-pvc        csi-hostpath-sc            25m
pvc-77324684-c717-11e8-8911-000c2967769a   1Gi        RWO            Delete           Bound    default/hpvc-restore   csi-hostpath-sc            33s

If you encounter any problems, please check the Troubleshooting page.